Skills for Business – Business for Skills

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What is Dual Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET)?

During the last several years, TVET has attracted a broad international interest. TVET has become a key vehicle for advancing personal, economic and social capacities and skills in many countries. However, TVET also plays an important role to enable young people to enter the labour market and ensure that the right skills are available to further develop the economy.
TVET is defined by UNESCO as “those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various sectors of economic life”. TVET thus equips people with vocational skills and with a broad range of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Work Based Learning (WBL) and Dual TVET

Work-based learning (WBL) is a fundamental aspect of vocational training – it is directly linked to the mission of TVET to help learners acquire knowledge, skills and competences that are essential for work life by combining practical and classroom learning. The most promising WBL model is the Dual System. The Dual System is fundamentally based on the integration of companies as training providers together with TVET schools or other education/training institutes and offers the apprentices the best opportunities to learn within real work processes. Other models of WBL with a stronger classroom oriented focus are school-based trainings combined with on-the-job trainings (internships , traineeships etc.) and school-integrated programmes (on-site labs, junior or practice firms, simulations etc.).

Advantages of the Dual Technical and Vocational Education and Training System

Dual TVET systems produce a highly skilled, flexible, mobile, and innovative workforce mastering current and future challenges. Instead of focusing on skills alone they cover broad areas of expertise. They do not only address short-term demand for qualifications of specific enterprises in certain sectors but empower also small enterprises and the economy to deal with future challenges.

Success Factors of the Dual TVET System


Apprentices are recruited and employed by companies. They are provided with an apprenticeship contract, a financial remuneration and a medical insurance during their training period.

Learning in Alternation

The learning process takes place at two venues, the TVET school and the company. The proportion of company-based training to classroom education ranges from 80:20 to 60:40, depending on sector and occupation. In a Dual System an apprenticeship lasts from two to four years.

By learning in a classroom as well as in a professional environment, trainees acquire technical and social skills that can be applied in practice. After the training, apprentices can better position themselves on the labour market.

Cooperation between State and Private Sector – Ownership

Dual TVET implies a shared responsibility and an ownership of the private and the public sector. The involvement of private sector bodies (e.g. chambers of commerce, business associations) and companies and their cooperation with the public sector is essential in Dual TVET Systems. The public and private sector collaborate in the development of occupational profiles, curricula, training delivery, examinations, steering, and financing of TVET. The systematic involvement of the private sector ensures that the demands of the economy are recognized and met in terms of contents and quality of the training.

Recognition of Standards

Recognition of examinations, certificates and occupational standards by the public and private sector and the social partners are an important success factor and crucial for the attractiveness of the system.

Qualification of TVET Personnel

TVET teachers trained in vocational pedagogics and professional didactics with practical experience, highly qualified instructors and school managers and well equipped TVET schools and training facilities contribute to the success of Dual TVET systems and their attractiveness.

The GIZ Private Sector Development and TVET in South Caucasus Programme (PSD TVET)

The PSD TVET Programme supports the Ministries of Education and Economy of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia respectively with introducing elements of Dual TVET or apprenticeship programmes in labour-market relevant sectors such as construction, tourism, viti-, and agriculture. Examples include the training occupations “Winegrower and Winemaker”, “Hotel Specialist” and “Restaurant Specialist”. The PSD TVET Programme maintains close contact with other German and international actors, including the Donor Committee for Dual Vocational Education and Training (DC dVET) and contributes to the improvement of framework conditions for Dual TVET, to the enhancement of skills and capacities of TVET teachers and in-company instructors and to fostering closer cooperation between public and private sector stakeholders in each of the three South Caucasian countries respectively.